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For some more advanced use cases, it is necessary to use multiple tools in the Uniswap toolchain.


If you need a briefer on the SDK and to learn more about how these guides connect to the examples repository, please visit our background page!

The following examples use ethersJS and the Uniswap V3 subgraph hosted on The Graph's hosted service. To learn more about Uniswap's subgraphs, visit the API section.

We will take a deep dive into the Uniswap V3 protocol and use practical examples to understand the data stored by the Uniswap smart contracts. We will explore how we can compute the available liquidity in a specific price range, visualize liquidity density in pools, use Uniswap as a price oracle and swap by creating Range Orders.

These guides are a bit longer than the previous ones and provide more theoretical background.

Theoretical background

Some of the guides presented here require a bit of theoretical and mathematical background. To get the most out of the advanced guides, we encourage you to take a step back and read a bit about the math and theories behind the Uniswap protocol.

The most complete source of information on the Uniswap protocol is the Uniswap V3 book.

Besides the concepts section of the Docs, the Uniswap V3 whitepaper is a great introduction to the protocol. If you haven't checked it out yet, it is probably more concise and easier to understand than you would expect.

Datatypes in Solidity

Uniswap V3 pools make use of a number of Datatypes Solidity offers to efficiently store their state. If you are not familiar with Solidity data types yet, it can help to take a look at the Solidity language reference. For the following guides, it is beneficial to take a look at two of them, which we will outline here.

Ticks are stored as a mapping(int24 => Tick.Info). Solidity mappings are very similar to hash maps, such that we can access any Value with their key with just one read operation. The Tick.Info stores the values of the Tick that we need to work with the Pool:

struct Info {
// the total position liquidity that references this tick
uint128 liquidityGross;
// amount of net liquidity added (subtracted) when tick is crossed from left to right (right to left),
int128 liquidityNet;
// fee growth per unit of liquidity on the _other_ side of this tick (relative to the current tick)
// only has relative meaning, not absolute — the value depends on when the tick is initialized
uint256 feeGrowthOutside0X128;
uint256 feeGrowthOutside1X128;
// the cumulative tick value on the other side of the tick
int56 tickCumulativeOutside;
// the seconds per unit of liquidity on the _other_ side of this tick (relative to the current tick)
// only has relative meaning, not absolute — the value depends on when the tick is initialized
uint160 secondsPerLiquidityOutsideX128;
// the seconds spent on the other side of the tick (relative to the current tick)
// only has relative meaning, not absolute — the value depends on when the tick is initialized
uint32 secondsOutside;
// true iff the tick is initialized, i.e. the value is exactly equivalent to the expression liquidityGross != 0
// these 8 bits are set to prevent fresh sstores when crossing newly initialized ticks
bool initialized;

We will use most of these values in the following guides.

In our case, we can access any Tick.Info value stored in the pool by its int24 key. The key of the Tick is usually called its index. Mappings are not iterable, so if we are trying to fetch all the Ticks stored in a Pool, we can't just iterate over the mapping. Instead, we have to know the keys (indices) of the mapping, we will explore how to do that in the Pool data guide.

The second Solidity datatype we need to understand are normal unsigned Integers. Solidity supports unsigned integer sizes between uint8 and uint256, which are 8 and 256 bits long respectively.

Let's take a look at the tickBitmap function of a V3 Pool:

  function tickBitmap(
int16 wordPosition
) external view returns (uint256)

Similar to the tick mapping, the tickBitmap is a mapping of type mapping(int16 => uint256).

Let's look at the WETH/USDC pool with LOW fee on Etherscan. If we call the tickBitmap function with the input 0 we get the following response (at the time of writing):


The uint256 return value is interpreted as the representation of a decimal number by Etherscan. The actual raw return value are 256 bits, that look something like this:

0x0000 ... lots of zeros and ones ... 000000110000000000

We interpret this string of zeros and ones not as the representation of a number, but rather as 256 booleans.

If the value of a position in the value is 1, the Tick at this position is initialized, meaning it holds a value.

With this trick, V3 Pools allow us to fetch the status of 256 ticks with one call. We will go into more details on how to calculate the tick indices from the tickBitmaps we fetch in the following guides.

History of Uniswap

To get a better understanding of the V3 protocol, it can also be beneficial to understand the history of decentralized exchanges and the Uniswap protocol since it was founded in 2018. You can read more about the older versions of Uniswap in the V1 and V2 whitepapers, as well as the V1 and V2 section in the contract section.